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Documentação


Limitação de largura de banda (usando o CBQ)
 
Descrição:

Limitação da Largura de Banda ( Para uso caseiro e empresas) utilizando o CBQ.

Material necessário:

IProute2
Site do programa: http://speakeasy.rpmfind.net/linux/RPM/redhat/8.0/i386/iproute-2.4.7- 5.i386.html
Editor de texto: (vi por exemplo)

Procedimentos de instalação:

1º Efectuem o download do source ou dos binários do iproute2
( NOTA: se ja tiverem isto instalado não e necessário mais nada e passam
para o passo 3).
2º Instalem (./configure;make;make install) ou (rpm -ivh iproute2.rpm).
3º De seguida e só copiar o texto que está em anexo e gravar como /root/cbq.init.(ou podem sacar de http://heanet.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/cbqinit/cbq.init-v0.7.2) .
Antes de executar este script fazem o que está a seguir.

Configuração em si:

 

1º Na directoria /etc/sysconfig/cbq/ ficam as regras de limitação (classes)

O ficheiro das regras funciona da seguinte maneira:
1- cada ficheiro é uma regra.
2 - o nome do ficheiro segue o padrão cbq-XXXX.nomedaregra (cbq-0002.pc)

- XXXX é o numero da regra simples, eu associo XXX ao numero do ip do
cliente, este numero tem obrigatoriamente 4 digitos, tem que ser 0002 ou
maior e pode ser Hexadecimal.

- nomedaregra é um nome na qual voce possa associar a regra eu utilizo o
login dos utilizadores

Ficheiro exemplar de exemplo cbq-0002.pc_in64k

DEVICE=eth0,10Mbit,1Mbit
RATE=64K
WEIGHT=6Kbit
PRIO=5
RULE=192.168.0.2
BOUNDED=yes
ISOLATED=yes

Ficheiro de exemplo cbq-0002.pc_out64k

DEVICE=eth1,10Mbit,1Mbit
RATE=64K
WEIGHT=6Kbit
PRIO=5
RULE=192.168.0.2,
BOUNDED=yes
ISOLATED=yes

Nota:
192.168.0.2 controla o ip
192.168.0.0/24 controla a rede
192.168.0.2:80 controla o ip utilizando a porta 80
192.168.0.0/24:80
quaquer destas opções seguidos de "," ex. 192.168.0.2, controla o tráfego de saida da rede (upload), sendo
importante lembrar que todo trafego de saida deve ser controlado na interface oposta do cliente.

BOUNDED=yes/no (se YES o utilizador está limitado mesmo que o link esteja com LB livre).

ISOLATED=yes/no (se YES o cliente não pode emprestar LB a ninguém).

Opção TIME
Esta opção serve para limitar o acesso em horários prédeterminados

Ex.:

TIME=-;/
ex. TIME=18:00-06:00;256Kbit/25Kbit

Opções do Kernel para o CBQ Funcionar (geralmente ja vem de origem)

Code Matury Level Options --->
[*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers

Networking Options --->
<*> Packet socket
[*] Routing Messages
<*> Unix domain sockets
[*] TCP/IP networking
[*] IP advanced router
[*] IP Policy routing
[*] IP equal cost multipath
[*] IP use TOS value as route key
[*] IP verbose route monitoring
[*] IP large routing tables
[*] IP fast network address translation
[*] optimize as houte not host

QoS and/or fair queueing --->
[*] QoS and/or fair queueing
< M > CBQ packet sheduler
< M > CSZ packet sheduler
< M > The simplest PRIO pseudosheduler
< M > RED queue
< M > SFQ queue
< M > TEQL queue
< M > TBF queue
[*] QoS support
[*] Rate estimator
[*] Packet classifier API
< M > Routing table based classifier
< M > Firewall based classifier
< M > U32 classifier
< M > Special RSVP classifier
< M > Special RSVP classifier for IPv6
[*] Ingress traffic policing

Obs. o RedHat 8 por defeito já vem preparado para o CBQ.

Outras referencias:
http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/Bandwidth-Limiting-HOWTO/index.html
http://www.gnumonks.org/cgi-bin/cvsweb.cgi/presentation/qos/
http://defiant.coinet.com/iproute2/


Anexo - script de controlo (./cbq.init)

#!/bin/bash
#
# cbq.init v0.7
# Copyright (C) 1999 Pavel Golubev <pg@ksi-linux.com>
#
# chkconfig: 2345 11 89
# description: sets up CBQ-based traffic control
#
# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
# (at your option) any later version.
#
# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
# GNU General Public License for more details.
#
# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
# along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
# Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
#
# To get the latest version, check on Freshmeat for actual location:
#
# http://freshmeat.net/projects/cbq.init
#
#
# VERSION HISTORY
# ---------------
# v0.7 - Lubomir Bulej <pallas@kadan.cz>
# - lots of various cleanups and reorganizations; the parsing is now
# some 40% faster, but the class ID must be in range 0x0002-0xffff
# (again). Because of the number of internal changes and the above
# class ID restriction, I bumped the version to 0.7 to indicate
# something might have got broken :)
# - changed PRIO_{U32,FW,ROUTE} to PRIO_{RULE,MARK,REALM}
# for consistency with filter keywords
# - exposed "compile" command
# - Catalin Petrescu <taz@dntis.ro>
# - support for port masks in RULE (u32) filter
# - Jordan Vrtanoski <obeliks@mt.net.mk>
# - support for week days in TIME rules
# v0.6.4- Lubomir Bulej <pallas@kadan.cz>
# - added PRIO_* variables to allow easy control of filter priorities
# - added caching to speed up CBQ start, the cache is invalidated
# whenever any of the configuration files changes
# - updated the readme section + some cosmetic fixes
# v0.6.3- Lubomir Bulej <pallas@kadan.cz>
# - removed setup of (unnecessary) class 1:1 - all classes
# now use qdisc's default class 1:0 as their parent
# - minor fix in the timecheck branch - classes
# without leaf qdisc were not updated
# - minor fix to avoid timecheck failure when run
# at time with minutes equal to 08 or 09
# - respect CBQ_PATH setting in environment
# - made PRIO=5 default, rendering it optional in configs
# - added support for route filter, see notes about REALM keyword
# - added support for fw filter, see notes about MARK keyword
# - added filter display to "list" and "stats" commands
# - readme section update + various cosmetic fixes
# v0.6.2- Catalin Petrescu <taz@dntis.ro>
# - added tunnels interface handling
# v0.6.1- Pavel Golubev <pg@ksi-linux.com>
# - added sch_prio module loading
# (thanks johan@iglo.virtual.or.id for reminding)
# - resolved errors resulting from stricter syntax checking in bash2
# - Lubomir Bulej <pallas@kadan.cz>
# - various cosmetic fixes
# v0.6 - Lubomir Bulej <pallas@kadan.cz>
# - attempt to limit number of spawned processes by utilizing
# more of sed power (use sed instead of grep+cut)
# - simplified TIME parser, using bash builtins
# - added initial support for SFQ as leaf qdisc
# - reworked the documentation part a little
# - incorporated pending patches and ideas submitted by
# following people for versions 0.3 into version 0.6
# - Miguel Freitas <miguel@cetuc.puc-rio.br>
# - in case of overlapping TIME parameters, the last match is taken
# - Juanjo Ciarlante <jjo@mendoza.gov.ar>
# - chkconfig tags, list + stats startup parameters
# - optional tc & ip command logging (into /var/run/cbq-*)
# - Rafal Maszkowski <rzm@icm.edu.pl>
# - PEAK parameter for setting TBF's burst peak rate
# - fix for many config files (use find instead of ls)
# v0.5.1- Lubomir Bulej <pallas@kadan.cz>
# - fixed little but serious bug in RULE parser
# v0.5 - Lubomir Bulej <pallas@kadan.cz>
# - added options PARENT, LEAF, ISOLATED and BOUNDED. This allows
# (with some attention to config file ordering) for creating
# hierarchical structures of shapers with classes able (or unable)
# to borrow bandwidth from their parents.
# - class ID check allows hexadecimal numbers
# - rewritten & simplified RULE parser
# - cosmetic changes to improve readability
# - reorganization to avoid duplicate code (timecheck etc.)
# - timecheck doesn't check classes without TIME fields anymore
# v0.4 - Lubomir Bulej <pallas@kadan.cz>
# - small bugfix in RULE parsing code
# - simplified configuration parsing code
# - several small cosmetic changes
# - TIME parameter can be now specified more than once allowing you to
# differentiate RATE throughout the whole day. Time overlapping is
# not checked, first match is taken. Midnight wrap (eg. 20:00-6:00)
# is allowed and taken care of.
# v0.3a4- fixed small bug in IF operator. Thanks to
# Rafal Maszkowski <rzm@icm.edu.pl>
# v0.3a3- fixed grep bug when using more than 10 eth devices. Thanks to David
# Trcka <trcka@poda.cz>.
# v0.3a2- fixed bug in "if" operator. Thanks kad@dgtu.donetsk.ua.
# v0.3a - added TIME parameter. Example: TIME=00:00-19:00;64Kbit/6Kbit
# So, between 00:00 and 19:00 the RATE will be 64Kbit.
# Just start "cbq.init timecheck" periodically from cron
# (every 10 minutes for example). DON'T FORGET though, to run
# "cbq.init start" for CBQ to initialize.
# v0.2 - Some cosmetic changes. Now it is more compatible with old bash
# version. Thanks to Stanislav V. Voronyi <stas@cnti.uanet.kharkov.ua>.
# v0.1 - First public release
#
#
# README
# ------
#
# First of all - this is just a SIMPLE EXAMPLE of CBQ power.
# Don't ask me "why" and "how" :)
#
# This script is meant to simplify setup and management of relatively simple
# CBQ-based traffic control on Linux. Access to advanced networking features
# of Linux kernel is provided by "ip" and "tc" utilities from A. Kuznetsov's
# iproute2 package, available at ftp://ftp.inr.ac.ru/ip-routing. Because the
# utilities serve primarily to translate user wishes to RTNETLINK commands,
# their interface is rather spartan, intolerant and requires quite a lot of
# typing. And typing is what this script attempts to reduce :)
#
# The advanced networking stuff in Linux is pretty flexible and this script
# aims to bring some of its features to the not-so-hard-core Linux users. Of
# course, there is a tradeoff between simplicity and flexibility and you may
# realize that the flexibility suffered too much for your needs -- time to
# face "ip" and "tc" interface.
#
# To speed up the "start" command, simple caching was introduced in version
# 0.6.4. The caching works so that the sequence of "tc" commands for given
# configuration is stored in a file (/var/run/cbq-cache by default) which
# is used next time the "start" command is run to avoid repeated parsing of
# configuration files. This cache is invalidated whenever any of the CBQ
# configuration files changes. If you want to run "cbq.init start" without
# caching, run it as "cbq.init start nocache". If you want to force cache
# invalidation, run it as "cbq.init start invalidate". Caching is disabled
# if you have logging enabled (ie. CBQ_DEBUG is not empty).
#
# If you only want cqb.init to translate your configuration to "tc" commands,
# use "compile" command which will output "tc" commands required to build
# your configuration. Bear in mind that "compile" does not check if the "tc"
# commands were successful - this is done (in certain places) only when the
# "start nocache" command is used, which is also useful when creating the
# configuration to check whether it is completely valid.
#
# All CBQ parameters are valid for Ethernet interfaces only, The script was
# tested on various Linux kernel versions from series 2.1 to 2.4 and several
# distributions with KSI Linux (Nostromo version) as the premier one.
#
#
# HOW DOES IT WORK?
# -----------------
#
# Every traffic class must be described by a file in the $CBQ_PATH directory
# (/etc/sysconfig/cbq by default) - one file per class.
#
# The config file names must obey mandatory format: cbq-<clsid>.<name> where
# <clsid> is two-byte hexadecimal number in range <0002-FFFF> (which in fact
# is a CBQ class ID) and <name> is the name of the class -- anything to help
# you distinguish the configuration files. For small amount of classes it is
# often possible (and convenient) to let <clsid> resemble bandwidth of the
# class.
#
# Example of valid config name:
# cbq-1280.My_first_shaper
#
#
# The configuration file may contain the following parameters:
#
### Device parameters
#
# DEVICE=<ifname>,<bandwidth>[,<weight>] mandatory
# DEVICE=eth0,10Mbit,1Mbit
#
# <ifname> is the name of the interface you want to control
# traffic on, e.g. eth0
# <bandwidth> is the physical bandwidth of the device, e.g. for
# ethernet 10Mbit or 100Mbit, for arcnet 2Mbit
# <weight> is tuning parameter that should be proportional to
# <bandwidth>. As a rule of thumb: <weight> = <bandwidth> / 10
#
# When you have more classes on one interface, it is enough to specify
# <bandwidth> [and <weight>] only once, therefore in other files you only
# need to set DEVICE=<ifname>.
#
### Class parameters
#
# RATE=<speed> mandatory
# RATE=5Mbit
#
# Bandwidth allocated to class. Traffic going through the class is
# shaped to conform to the given rate. You can use Kbit, Mbit or
# bps, Kbps and Mbps as suffices.miting speed of the shaper.
# You can use Kbit, Mbit or bps, Kbps, Mbps as suffixes.
#
# WEIGHT=<speed> mandatory
# WEIGHT=500Kbit
#
# Tuning parameter that should be proportional to RATE. As a rule
# of thumb, use WEIGHT ~= RATE / 10.
#
# PRIO=<1-8> optional, default 5
# PRIO=5
#
# Priority of class traffic. The higher the number, the lesser
# the priority. Priority of 5 is just fine.
#
# PARENT=<clsid> optional, default not set
# PARENT=1280
#
# Specifies ID of the parent class to which you want this class be
# attached. You might want to use LEAF=none for the parent class as
# mentioned below. By using this parameter and carefully ordering the
# configuration files, it is possible to create simple hierarchical
# structures of CBQ classes. The ordering is important so that parent
# classes are constructed prior to their children.
#
# LEAF=none|tbf|sfq optional, default "tbf"
#
# Tells the script to attach specified leaf queueing discipline to CBQ
# class. By default, TBF is used. Note that attaching TBF to CBQ class
# shapes the traffic to conform to TBF parameters and prevents the class
# from borrowing bandwidth from its parent even if you have BOUNDED set
# to "no". To allow the class to borrow bandwith (provided it is not
# bounded), you must set LEAF to "none" or "sfq".
#
# If you want to ensure (approximately) fair sharing of bandwidth among
# several hosts in the same class, you might want to specify LEAF=sfq to
# attach SFQ as leaf queueing discipline to that class.
#
# BOUNDED=yes|no optional, default "yes"
#
# If set to "yes", the class is not allowed to borrow bandwidth from
# its parent class in overlimit situation. If set to "no", the class
# will be allowed to borrow bandwidth from its parent.
#
# Note: Don't forget to set LEAF to "none" or "sfq", otherwise the class will
# have TBF attached to itself and will not be able to borrow unused
# bandwith from its parent.
#
# ISOLATED=yes|no optional, default "no"
#
# If set to "yes", the class will not lend unused bandwidth to
# its children.
#
### TBF qdisc parameters
#
# BUFFER=<bytes>[/<bytes>] optional, default "10Kb/8"
#
# This parameter controls the depth of the token bucket. In other
# words it represents the maximal burst size the class can send.
# The optional part of parameter is used to determine the length
# of intervals in packet sizes, for which the transmission times
# are kept.
#
# LIMIT=<bytes> optional, default "15Kb"
#
# This parameter determines the maximal length of backlog. If
# the queue contains more data than specified by LIMIT, the
# newly arriving packets are dropped. The length of backlog
# determines queue latency in case of congestion.
#
# PEAK=<speed> optional, default not set
#
# Maximal peak rate for short-term burst traffic. This allows you
# to control the absolute peak rate the class can send at, because
# single TBF that allows 256Kbit/s would of course allow rate of
# 512Kbit for half a second or 1Mbit for a quarter of second.
#
# MTU=<bytes> optional, default "1500"
#
# Maximum number of bytes that can be sent at once over the
# physical medium. This parameter is required when you specify
# PEAK parameter. It defaults to MTU of ethernet - for other
# media types you might want to change it.
#
# Note: Setting TBF as leaf qdisc will effectively prevent the class from
# borrowing bandwidth from the ancestor class, because even if the
# class allows more traffic to pass through, it is then shaped to
# conform to TBF.
#
### SFQ qdisc parameters
#
# The SFQ queueing discipline is a cheap way for sharing class bandwidth
# among several hosts. As it is stochastic, the fairness is approximate but
# it will do the job in most cases. If you want real fairness, you should
# probably use WRR (weighted round robin) or WFQ queueing disciplines. Note
# that SFQ does not do any traffic shaping - the shaping is done by the CBQ
# class the SFQ is attached to.
#
# QUANTUM=<bytes> optional, default not set
#
# This parameter should not be set lower than link MTU, for ethernet
# it is 1500b, or (with MAC header) 1514b which is the value used
# in Alexey Kuznetsov's examples.
#
# PERTURB=<seconds> optional, default not set
#
# Period of hash function perturbation. In Alexey Kuznetsov's
# examples the value used was 15 seconds.
#
### Filter parameters
#
# RULE=[[saddr[/prefix]][:port[/mask]],][daddr[/prefix]][:port[/mask]]
#
# These parameters make up "u32" filter rules that select traffic for
# each of the classes. You can use multiple RULE fields per config.
#
# The optional port mask should only be used by advanced users who
# understand how the u32 filter works.
#
# Some examples:
#
# RULE=10.1.1.0/24:80
# selects traffic going to port 80 in network 10.1.1.0
#
# RULE=10.2.2.5
# selects traffic going to any port on single host 10.2.2.5
#
# RULE=10.2.2.5:20/0xfffe
# selects traffic going to ports 20 and 21 on host 10.2.2.5
#
# RULE=:25,10.2.2.128/26:5000
# selects traffic going from anywhere on port 50 to
# port 5000 in network 10.2.2.128
#
# RULE=10.5.5.5:80,
# selects traffic going from port 80 of single host 10.5.5.5
#
#
#
# REALM=[srealm,][drealm]
#
# These parameters make up "route" filter rules that classify traffic
# according to packet source/destination realms. For information about
# realms, see Alexey Kuznetsov's IP Command Reference. This script
# does not define any realms, it justs builds "tc filter" commands
# for you if you need to classify traffic this way.
#
# Realm is either a decimal number or a string referencing entry in
# /etc/iproute2/rt_realms (usually).
#
# Some examples:
#
# REALM=russia,internet
# selects traffic going from realm "russia" to realm "internet"
#
# REALM=freenet,
# selects traffic going from realm "freenet"
#
# REALM=10
# selects traffic going to realm 10
#
#
#
# MARK=<mark>
#
# These parameters make up "fw" filter rules that select traffic for
# each of the classes accoring to firewall "mark". Mark is a decimal
# number packets are tagged with if firewall rules say so. You can
# use multiple MARK fields per config.
#
#
# Note: Rules for different filter types can be combined. Attention must be
# paid to the priority of filter rules, which can be set below using
# PRIO_{RULE,MARK,REALM} variables.
#
### Time ranging parameters
#
# TIME=[<dow>,<dow>, ...,<dow>/]<from>-<till>;<rate>/<weight>[/<peak>]
# TIME=0,1,2,5/18:00-06:00;256Kbit/25Kbit
# TIME=60123/18:00-06:00;256Kbit/25Kbit
# TIME=18:00-06:00;256Kbit/25Kbit
#
# This parameter allows you to differentiate the class bandwidth
# throughout the day. You can specify multiple TIME parameters, if
# the times overlap, last match is taken. The fields <rate>, <weight>
# and <peak> correspond to parameters RATE, WEIGHT and PEAK (which
# is optional and applies to TBF leaf qdisc only).
#
# You can also specify days of week when the TIME rule applies. <dow>
# is numeric, 0 corresponds to sunday, 1 corresponds to monday, etc.
#
###
#
# Sample configuration file: cbq-1280.My_first_shaper
#
# --------------------------------------------------------------------------
# DEVICE=eth0,10Mbit,1Mbit
# RATE=128Kbit
# WEIGHT=10Kbit
# PRIO=5
# RULE=192.128.1.0/24
# --------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
# The configuration says that we will control traffic on 10Mbit ethernet
# device eth0 and the traffic going to network 192.168.1.0 will be
# processed with priority 5 and shaped to rate of 128Kbit.
#
# Note that you can control outgoing traffic only. If you want to control
# traffic in both directions, you must set up CBQ for both interfaces.
#
# Consider the following example:
#
# +---------+ 192.168.1.1
# BACKBONE -----eth0-| linux |-eth1------*-[client]
# +---------+
#
# Imagine you want to shape traffic from backbone to the client to 28Kbit
# and traffic in the opposite direction to 128Kbit. You need to setup CBQ
# on both eth0 and eth1 interfaces, thus you need two config files:
#
# cbq-028.backbone-client
# --------------------------------------------------------------------------
# DEVICE=eth1,10Mbit,1Mbit
# RATE=28Kbit
# WEIGHT=2Kbit
# PRIO=5
# RULE=192.168.1.1
# --------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
# cbq-128.client-backbone
# --------------------------------------------------------------------------
# DEVICE=eth0,10Mbit,1Mbit
# RATE=128Kbit
# WEIGHT=10Kbit
# PRIO=5
# RULE=192.168.1.1,
# --------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
# Pay attention to comma "," in the RULE field - it denotes source address!
#
# Enjoy.
#
################# ###################

PATH="/sbin:/usr/sbin:/bin:/usr/bin"

### Default filter priorities (must be different)
PRIO_RULE=${PRIO_RULE:-100}
PRIO_MARK=${PRIO_MARK:-200}
PRIO_REALM=${PRIO_REALM:-300}

### Default CBQ_PATH & CBQ_CACHE settings
CBQ_PATH=${CBQ_PATH:-/etc/sysconfig/cbq}
CBQ_CACHE=${CBQ_CACHE:-/var/cache/cbq.init}

### Uncomment to enable logfile for debugging
#CBQ_DEBUG="/var/run/cbq-$1"

### Modules to probe for. Uncomment the last CBQ_PROBE
### line if you have QoS support compiled into kernel
CBQ_PROBE="sch_cbq sch_tbf sch_sfq sch_prio"
CBQ_PROBE="$CBQ_PROBE cls_fw cls_u32 cls_route"
#CBQ_PROBE=""

### Keywords required for qdisc & class configuration
CBQ_WORDS="DEVICE|RATE|WEIGHT|PRIO|PARENT|LEAF|BOUNDED|ISOLATED"
CBQ_WORDS="$CBQ_WORDS|BUFFER|LIMIT|PEAK|MTU|QUANTUM|PERTURB"

####################################
################## SUPPORT FUNCTIONS ###########
###############################################

### Get list of network devices
cbq_device_list () {
ip link show| sed -n "/^[0-9]/ \
{ s/^[0-9]\+: \([a-z0-9]\+\)[:@].*/\1/; p; }"
} # cbq_device_list

### Remove root class from device $1
cbq_device_off () {
tc qdisc del dev $1 root 2> /dev/null
} # cbq_device_off

### Remove CBQ from all devices
cbq_off () {
for dev in `cbq_device_list`; do
cbq_device_off $dev
done
} # cbq_off

### Prefixed message
cbq_message () {
echo -e "**CBQ: $@"
} # cbq_message

### Failure message
cbq_failure () {
cbq_message "$@"
exit 1
} # cbq_failure

### Failure w/ cbq-off
cbq_fail_off () {
cbq_message "$@"
cbq_off
exit 1
} # cbq_fail_off

 

### Convert time to absolute value
cbq_time2abs () {
_min=${1##*:}
_min=${_min##0}
echo $[${1%%:*}*60 + _min]
} # cbq_time2abs

### Display CBQ setup
cbq_show () {
for dev in `cbq_device_list`; do
[ `tc qdisc show dev $dev| wc -l` -eq 0 ] && continue
echo -e "### $dev: queueing disciplines\n"
tc $1 qdisc show dev $dev; echo

[ `tc class show dev $dev| wc -l` -eq 0 ] && continue
echo -e "### $dev: traffic classes\n"
tc $1 class show dev $dev; echo

[ `tc filter show dev $dev| wc -l` -eq 0 ] && continue
echo -e "### $dev: filtering rules\n"
tc $1 filter show dev $dev; echo
done
} # cbq_show

### Check configuration and load DEVICES, DEVFIELDS and CLASSLIST from $1
cbq_init () {
### Get a list of configured classes
CLASSLIST=`find $1 -name 'cbq-*' -maxdepth 1 -printf "%f\n"| sort`
[ -z "$CLASSLIST" ] &&
cbq_failure "no configuration files found in $1!"

### Gather all DEVICE fields from $1/cbq-*
DEVFIELDS=`find $1 -name 'cbq-*' -maxdepth 1 -exec sed -ne \
's/#.*//; s/ //g; /^DEVICE=[^,]*,[^,]*\(,[^,]*\)\?/ \
{ s/.*=//; p; q; }; /^DEVICE=/ q' {} \;| sort -u`
[ -z "$DEVFIELDS" ] &&
cbq_failure "no DEVICE field found in $1/cbq-*!"

### Check for different DEVICE fields for the same device
DEVICES=`echo "$DEVFIELDS"| sed 's/,.*//'| sort -u`
[ `echo "$DEVICES"| wc -l` -ne `echo "$DEVFIELDS"| wc -l` ] &&
cbq_failure "different DEVICE fields for single device!\n$DEVFIELDS"
} # cbq_init

### Load class configuration from $1/$2
cbq_load_class () {
CLASS=`echo $2| sed 's/^cbq-0*//; s/^\([0-9a-fA-F]\+\).*/\1/'`
CFILE=`sed -n 's/#.*//; s/ //g; /^[[:alpha:]]\+=[[:alnum:].,:;/*-]\+$/ p' $1/$2`

### Check class number
IDVAL=`/usr/bin/printf "%d" 0x$CLASS 2> /dev/null`
[ $? -ne 0 -o $IDVAL -lt 2 -o $IDVAL -gt 65535 ] &&
cbq_fail_off "class ID of $2 must be in range <0002-FFFF>!"

### Set defaults & load class
RATE=""; WEIGHT=""; PARENT=""; PRIO=5
LEAF=tbf; BOUNDED=yes; ISOLATED=no
BUFFER=10Kb/8; LIMIT=15Kb; MTU=1500
PEAK=""; PERTURB=""; QUANTUM=""

eval `echo "$CFILE"| grep -E "^($CBQ_WORDS)="`

### Require RATE/WEIGHT
[ -z "$RATE" -o -z "$WEIGHT" ] &&
cbq_fail_off "missing RATE or WEIGHT in $2!"

### Class device
DEVICE=${DEVICE%%,*}
[ -z "$DEVICE" ] && cbq_fail_off "missing DEVICE field in $2!"

BANDWIDTH=`echo "$DEVFIELDS"| sed -n "/^$DEVICE,/ \
{ s/[^,]*,\([^,]*\).*/\1/; p; q; }"`

### Convert to "tc" options
PEAK=${PEAK:+peakrate $PEAK}
PERTURB=${PERTURB:+perturb $PERTURB}
QUANTUM=${QUANTUM:+quantum $QUANTUM}

[ "$BOUNDED" = "no" ] && BOUNDED="" || BOUNDED="bounded"
[ "$ISOLATED" = "yes" ] && ISOLATED="isolated" || ISOLATED=""
} # cbq_load_class

##############################
################# INIT ####################
#####################################

### Check for presence of ip-route2 in usual place
[ -x /sbin/tc -a -x /sbin/ip ] ||
cbq_failure "ip-route2 utilities not installed or executable!"

### Various tweaks
if [ "$1" = "compile" ]; then
### no module probing
CBQ_PROBE=""

### echo-only version of "tc" command
tc () {
echo "tc $@"
} # tc

elif [ -n "$CBQ_DEBUG" ]; then
echo -e "# `date`" > $CBQ_DEBUG

### Logging version of "ip" command
ip () {
echo -e "\n# ip $@" >> $CBQ_DEBUG
/sbin/ip "$@" 2>&1 | tee -a $CBQ_DEBUG
} # ip

### Logging version of "tc" command
tc () {
echo -e "\n# tc $@" >> $CBQ_DEBUG
/sbin/tc "$@" 2>&1 | tee -a $CBQ_DEBUG
} # tc
fi # command logging

case "$1" in

###############################
################## START/COMPILE ################
################################

start|compile)

### Probe QoS modules (start only)
for module in $CBQ_PROBE; do
modprobe $module || cbq_failure "failed to load module $module"
done

### If we are in compile/nocache/logging mode, don't bother with cache
if [ "$1" != "compile" -a "$2" != "nocache" -a -z "$CBQ_DEBUG" ]; then
VALID=1

### validate the cache
[ "$2" = "invalidate" -o ! -f $CBQ_CACHE ] && VALID=0
if [ $VALID -eq 1 ]; then
[ `find $CBQ_PATH -maxdepth 1 -newer $CBQ_CACHE| \
wc -l` -gt 0 ] && VALID=0
fi

### compile the config if the cache is invalid
if [ $VALID -ne 1 ]; then
$0 compile > $CBQ_CACHE ||
cbq_fail_off "failed to compile CBQ configuration!"
fi

### run the cached commands
exec /bin/sh $CBQ_CACHE 2> /dev/null
fi

### Load DEVICES, DEVFIELDS and CLASSLIST
cbq_init $CBQ_PATH

### Setup root qdisc on all configured devices
for dev in $DEVICES; do
### Retrieve device bandwidth and, optionally, weight
DEVTEMP=`echo "$DEVFIELDS"| sed -n "/^$dev,/ { s/$dev,//; p; q; }"`
DEVBWDT=${DEVTEMP%%,*}; DEVWGHT=${DEVTEMP##*,}
[ "$DEVBWDT" = "$DEVWGHT" ] && DEVWGHT=""

### Device bandwidth is required
if [ -z "$DEVBWDT" ]; then
cbq_message "could not determine bandwidth for device $dev!"
cbq_failure "please set up the DEVICE fields properly!"
fi

### Check if the device is there
ip link show $dev &> /dev/null ||
cbq_fail_off "device $dev not found!"

### Remove old root qdisc from device
cbq_device_off $dev

### Setup root qdisc + class for device
tc qdisc add dev $dev root handle 1 cbq \
bandwidth $DEVBWDT avpkt 1000 cell 8

### Set weight of the root class if set
[ -n "$DEVWGHT" ] &&
tc class change dev $dev root cbq weight $DEVWGHT allot 1514

[ "$1" = "compile" ] && echo
done # dev

### Setup traffic classes
for classfile in $CLASSLIST; do
cbq_load_class $CBQ_PATH $classfile

### Create the class
tc class add dev $DEVICE parent 1:$PARENT classid 1:$CLASS cbq \
bandwidth $BANDWIDTH rate $RATE weight $WEIGHT prio $PRIO \
allot 1514 cell 8 maxburst 20 avpkt 1000 $BOUNDED $ISOLATED ||
cbq_fail_off "failed to add class $CLASS with parent $PARENT on $DEVICE!"

### Create leaf qdisc if set
if [ "$LEAF" = "tbf" ]; then
tc qdisc add dev $DEVICE parent 1:$CLASS handle $CLASS tbf \
rate $RATE buffer $BUFFER limit $LIMIT mtu $MTU $PEAK
elif [ "$LEAF" = "sfq" ]; then
tc qdisc add dev $DEVICE parent 1:$CLASS handle $CLASS sfq \
$PERTURB $QUANTUM
fi

### Create fw filter for MARK fields
for mark in `echo "$CFILE"| sed -n '/^MARK/ { s/.*=//; p; }'`; do
### Attach fw filter to root class
tc filter add dev $DEVICE parent 1:0 protocol ip \
prio $PRIO_MARK handle $mark fw classid 1:$CLASS
done ### mark

### Create route filter for REALM fields
for realm in `echo "$CFILE"| sed -n '/^REALM/ { s/.*=//; p; }'`; do
### Split realm into source & destination realms
SREALM=${realm%%,*}; DREALM=${realm##*,}
[ "$SREALM" = "$DREALM" ] && SREALM=""

### Convert asterisks to empty strings
SREALM=${SREALM#\*}; DREALM=${DREALM#\*}

### Attach route filter to the root class
tc filter add dev $DEVICE parent 1:0 protocol ip \
prio $PRIO_REALM route ${SREALM:+from $SREALM} \
${DREALM:+to $DREALM} classid 1:$CLASS
done ### realm

### Create u32 filter for RULE fields
for rule in `echo "$CFILE"| sed -n '/^RULE/ { s/.*=//; p; }'`; do
### Split rule into source & destination
SRC=${rule%%,*}; DST=${rule##*,}
[ "$SRC" = "$DST" ] && SRC=""

### Split destination into address, port & mask fields
DADDR=${DST%%:*}; DTEMP=${DST##*:}
[ "$DADDR" = "$DST" ] && DTEMP=""

DPORT=${DTEMP%%/*}; DMASK=${DTEMP##*/}
[ "$DPORT" = "$DTEMP" ] && DMASK="0xffff"

### Split up source (if specified)
SADDR=""; SPORT=""
if [ -n "$SRC" ]; then
SADDR=${SRC%%:*}; STEMP=${SRC##*:}
[ "$SADDR" = "$SRC" ] && STEMP=""

SPORT=${STEMP%%/*}; SMASK=${STEMP##*/}
[ "$SPORT" = "$STEMP" ] && SMASK="0xffff"
fi

### Convert asterisks to empty strings
SADDR=${SADDR#\*}; DADDR=${DADDR#\*}

### Compose u32 filter rules
u32_s="${SPORT:+match ip sport $SPORT $SMASK}"
u32_s="${SADDR:+match ip src $SADDR} $u32_s"
u32_d="${DPORT:+match ip dport $DPORT $DMASK}"
u32_d="${DADDR:+match ip dst $DADDR} $u32_d"

### Uncomment the following if you want to see parsed rules
#echo "$rule: $u32_s $u32_d"

### Attach u32 filter to the appropriate class
tc filter add dev $DEVICE parent 1:0 protocol ip \
prio $PRIO_RULE u32 $u32_s $u32_d classid 1:$CLASS
done ### rule

[ "$1" = "compile" ] && echo
done ### classfile
;;

############################
#################### TIME CHECK ################
##################################/font>

timecheck)

### Get time + weekday
TIME_TMP=`date +%w/%k:%M`
TIME_DOW=${TIME_TMP%%/*}
TIME_NOW=${TIME_TMP##*/}
TIME_ABS=`cbq_time2abs $TIME_NOW`

### Load DEVICES, DEVFIELDS and CLASSLIST
cbq_init $CBQ_PATH

### Run through all classes
for classfile in $CLASSLIST; do
### Gather all TIME rules from class config
TIMESET=`sed -ne 's/#.*//; s/ //g; /^TIME/ { s/.*=//; p; }' \
$CBQ_PATH/$classfile`
[ -z "$TIMESET" ] && continue

MATCH=0; CHANGE=0
for timerule in $TIMESET; do
### Split TIME rule to pieces
TIMESPEC=${timerule%%;*}; PARAMS=${timerule##*;}
WEEKDAYS=${TIMESPEC%%/*}; INTERVAL=${TIMESPEC##*/}
BEG_TIME=${INTERVAL%%-*}; END_TIME=${INTERVAL##*-}

### Check the day-of-week (if present)
[ "$WEEKDAYS" != "$INTERVAL" -a \
-n "${WEEKDAYS##*$TIME_DOW*}" ] && continue

### Compute interval boundaries
BEG_ABS=`cbq_time2abs $BEG_TIME`
END_ABS=`cbq_time2abs $END_TIME`

### Midnight wrap fixup
if [ $BEG_ABS -gt $END_ABS ]; then
[ $TIME_ABS -le $END_ABS ] &&
TIME_ABS=$[TIME_ABS + 24*60]

END_ABS=$[END_ABS + 24*60]
fi

### If the time matches, remember params and set MATCH flag
if [ $TIME_ABS -ge $BEG_ABS -a $TIME_ABS -lt $END_ABS ]; then
TMP_RATE=${PARAMS%%/*}; PARAMS=${PARAMS#*/}
TMP_WGHT=${PARAMS%%/*}; TMP_PEAK=${PARAMS##*/}

[ "$TMP_PEAK" = "$TMP_WGHT" ] && TMP_PEAK=""
TMP_PEAK=${TMP_PEAK:+peakrate $TMP_PEAK}

MATCH=1
fi
done ### timerule

cbq_load_class $CBQ_PATH $classfile

### Get current RATE of CBQ class
RATE_NOW=`tc class show dev $DEVICE| sed -n \
"/cbq 1:$CLASS / { s/.*rate //; s/ .*//; p; q; }"`
[ -z "$RATE_NOW" ] && continue

### Time interval matched
if [ $MATCH -ne 0 ]; then

### Check if there is any change in class RATE
if [ "$RATE_NOW" != "$TMP_RATE" ]; then
NEW_RATE="$TMP_RATE"
NEW_WGHT="$TMP_WGHT"
NEW_PEAK="$TMP_PEAK"
CHANGE=1
fi

### Match not found, reset to default RATE if necessary
elif [ "$RATE_NOW" != "$RATE" ]; then
NEW_WGHT="$WEIGHT"
NEW_RATE="$RATE"
NEW_PEAK="$PEAK"
CHANGE=1
fi

### If there are no changes, go for next class
[ $CHANGE -eq 0 ] && continue

### Replace CBQ class
tc class replace dev $DEVICE classid 1:$CLASS cbq \
bandwidth $BANDWIDTH rate $NEW_RATE weight $NEW_WGHT prio $PRIO \
allot 1514 cell 8 maxburst 20 avpkt 1000 $BOUNDED $ISOLATED

### Replace leaf qdisc (if any)
if [ "$LEAF" = "tbf" ]; then
tc qdisc replace dev $DEVICE handle $CLASS tbf \
rate $NEW_RATE buffer $BUFFER limit $LIMIT mtu $MTU $NEW_PEAK
fi

cbq_message "$TIME_NOW: class $CLASS on $DEVICE changed rate ($RATE_NOW -> $NEW_RATE)"
done ### class file
;;

###################################
######################### THE REST ###################
##########################################

stop)
cbq_off
;;

list)
cbq_show
;;

stats)
cbq_show -s
;;

restart)
$0 stop
$0 start
;;

*)
echo "Usage: `basename $0` {start|compile|stop|restart|timecheck|list|stats}"
esac

 

Escrito por: Luis RodriguesTestado em: REDHAT( 8.0 )
Comentário de: Luis Rodrigues


se tiverem alguma duvida, pode coloca-se aqui, como comentário.

Comentário de: Luis Rodrigues
ja saiu uma nova versão do script.


http://heanet.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/cbqinit/cbq.init-v0.7.3


Comentário de: netshark
Esta abordagem actua a Layer 3, ou seja não faz diferenciação de serviços mas sim de hosts. Para fazer diffserv eficiente deve-se usar HTB com o classificador de layer 7 para linux Link
A firewall ipcop com o addon QoS-NG é um excelente exemplo disso.




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Limitação de largura de banda (usando o CBQ) - Linux Portugal